with contributions by Keith Wittenstein. Special thanks to Sarah Court, Dinneen Viggiano and Trina Altman for editing and feedback

This article is Part 5 in a series on shoulder biomechanics.

In our earlier posts of the series, we noted the learning paradigm for how most yoga teachers are trained to teach yoga – the apprenticeship model – as a possible explanation for why the shoulders down cue is so often repeated; new teachers hear their teachers using this cue and then repeat it. It’s also a shoulder position that many yoga teachers have been trained to adopt in their own practice. Because a teacher’s practice is the primary resource from which they will draw their movement cues, teachers will often wittingly or unwittingly help their students adopt the teacher’s own postural and movement habits, for better or for worse. In addition to this, we know there are certainly many more reasons that the shoulders down cue gets used when the arms are in the overhead position, one more of which we outline next.


The upper trapezius is commonly an area loaded with trigger points and tension.
The upper trapezius is commonly an area loaded with trigger points and tension.

Another possible explanation for this cue, and the topic of this blog post, has to do with the trapezius muscle, a huge muscle of the neck, shoulders and upper back, and the reality that, on a whole, these days people are walking around with excessive tension in these areas of their bodies. The upper trapezius and surrounding tissues can often act as a veritable dumping ground for our mental and emotional anxiety. This tension, felt from the fast-paced, task-driven, success and failure oriented lives we lead, will often manifest as tension in the upper shoulders as we attempt to carry the weight of the world on top of them.

In addition to the upper trapezius being an area that is frequently tense because of psychological stress, it is also a muscle that contains a higher-than-average level of collagen fibers in its soft tissue make up. Collagen is a super tough connective tissue fiber that is especially efficient for doing the long-term postural work of holding the body upright for extended periods of time. The upper trapezius is one of the main postural muscles that holds your head upright all day long so it’s kind of a good thing that the muscle is a little tense. However, the task of holding the head upright gets especially hard for this muscle to do when the head is held forward of the spine, a common postural misalignment we adopt while looking at screens that are below eye level.

For every degree forward of the axis of the spine that you hold your head, the load demand on the neck increases more than ten pounds! This extra demand on the upper trapezius can further contribute to its tension making it hyper-irritable and sensitive to even the lightest pressure.

Now, this next part is a wild guess about what another potential rationale for teachers to cue shoulders down might be, because obviously we have no way of knowing the thought process of anyone unless we ask. While we do have a fair amount of experience dialoguing with yoga teachers, that evidence is anecdotal at best, so we do not assume that the following is everyone’s thought process, or even most people’s. We only know that it has been the thought process of some, including our own at one point in time. And so this next part is really describing what some of our fellow teachers and our own thought process was at one time about pulling the shoulder blades down when the arms go overhead.

Since the upper trapezius can often be stiff, tense and sore, it makes sense that yoga teachers would want to help their students learn to relax it, and by doing so, perhaps also alleviate and retrain some of the mental and emotional patterning and lifestyle habits that caused it. One way you might logically go about relaxing a muscle that elevates the scapula would be to teach the student to depress their scapula thereby inhibiting contraction of the muscles that elevates it.  And it also makes sense logically that the best postures to help students relax their shoulders would be the ones in which the scapulae appear to raise up a lot, like when the arms reach overhead. Since, helping students adopt healthier postural and movement patterns is a main objective for many yoga teachers, in the case of helping students ameliorate excessive tension in their upper trapezius, the thought process might go something along the lines of, “If I can train this student how to keep their shoulder blades down, the upper trapezius and other muscles that elevate the scapulae will stop having to contract and learn to be more relaxed. This will help the student tamp down on the tension they most likely feel in their lower neck and upper shoulders.”

This is a valid reason to cue shoulders down, but it is a misunderstanding of how maladaptive trigger-points and tension patterns develop and how we can alleviate them. It is a misunderstanding with two parts. One, it misunderstands the movement the shoulder blades and collarbones when the arms go overhead. In earlier blog posts of this series, we detailed how pulling the shoulder blades down when the arms reach overhead creates positional dissonance between the end of clavicle, which must elevate, and its articulation with the acromion process of the scapula at the AC joint, which in turn, must upwardly rotate. Both articulating surfaces of the bones that make up the AC joint must go up toward the head. The second misunderstanding lies in the assumption that in order to retrain a muscle that is chronically tense, we must simply stop contracting it. In reality, this will not make a muscle more habitually relaxed, it will only make it weaker, and it can be our weakest muscles that cause us the most chronic tension.

Let’s take a look at the trapezius.

The multiple fiber directions of the trapezius allow it different lines of pulls on the scapula and shoulders.
The multiple fiber directions of the trapezius allow it different lines of pulls on the scapula and shoulders.

The entire trapezius is shaped like a diamond and it has multiple fiber directions. Its upper fibers (the top of the diamond) elevate the scapulae and its lower fibers (the bottom of the diamond) depress the scapulae. The entire trapezius muscle – all of its muscle fibers – upwardly rotate the scapulae. In our last blog post, we detailed why upward rotation of the scapulae is an absolutely crucial movement when the arms are overhead. We also introduced ways to refine it.

In summary, it’s logical to work scapular depression in an attempt to relax the upper fibers of trapezius, specifically if they are causing the shoulder blades to crowd the neck – something that frequently happens when people take their arms overhead. But, in doing so, you also eliminate this muscle’s force output to upwardly rotate the shoulder blades, an additional action of the upper fibers of the trapezius. Cutting off a full third of the muscles force output potential limits the amount of strength you’re able to put behind the scapular position of upward rotation, and if you’re doing handstand for a long hold, you’re going to need to harness as much of the muscle’s force output possible.

One way to address both issues – to upwardly rotate the shoulder blades but not excessively elevate the shoulder blades, is by zeroing in on refining the action of upward rotation. When the shoulder blades upwardly rotate, the top, inner corner of the shoulder blade (the superior angle) moves away from the neck and head (so the back of the neck has a feeling of more length), while the outer side of the scapula (the lateral border), or outer armpit, moves up toward the head. To do this, it becomes necessary to train your whole trapezius to engage evenly across its many fiber directions, upper, middle and lower so that the upper fibers don’t overpower the lower fibers and bias a position of elevation.

This can also be facilitated by practicing self-massage with the Yoga Tune Up® therapy balls. Self-massage helps you somatically map your scapulae more clearly so you have a better sense of their direction of movement and position proprioceptively while upwardly rotating them. It will also relieve the upper trapezius of its chronically gripped state so that it doesn’t overpower the other fiber directions of the trapezius and pull the entire shoulder blade upward. Scapular elevation is a muscle action unique to the upper fibers of trapezius. Massaging your own shoulders can also help revive the more sluggish sections of the lower trapezius so that it is better capable of performing the action of upward rotation of the shoulder blade. It will also help the lower trapezius balance out the upward pull of the upper trapezius by equalizing it with an evenly matched force of downward pull. Scapular depression is a muscle action unique to the lower fibers of trapezius. When both the upper and lower trapezius engage evenly to facilitate taking the arms overhead, the shoulder blades stay anchored in a way that they will neither be pulled upward or downward, but remain buoyant between these two extremes. This balance and buoyancy will allow for greater efficiency in completing the movement of upward rotation.

banana back handstand
Compensation for shoulder issues many times occur in the spine, such is the case in this “banana back” handstand.

For most, depressing the shoulder blades while the arms are overhead will make it so that the arm bones don’t reach 180 degrees of flexion, and instead, the rest of the body will find other ways to compensate, most likely by bending from the lumbar spinal joints as in this picture of someone doing handstand with a ‘banana back’. That, or position will be achieved at the expense of the AC joint and other neighboring tissues that unfortunately find themselves stuck in the middle of these two conflicting goals, upward rotation and depression of the scapulae. It is depressing, indeed! Instead, go with the beat of your scapuloclaviculohumeral rhythm and learn to refine the movement of upward rotation of the scapula. Glide the outer shoulder blade up toward your hands as you glide the inner shoulder blade down toward your hips. Is it more complex? It sure is! Is it worth the extra work to understand it in our bodies? I think so!

Come back on Friday for the last installment of this article with a YTU Therapy Ball soother for the upper back!


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